акрополь (греч. akropolis - верхний город)
    Расположенная на возвышенности и укреплённая часть древнегреческого города, его цитадель, которая служила защитой для жителей во время войны.

    A symbolic depiction of an idea. For example, the vagaries of fortune are often symbolized visually by a female figure, Fortuna, turning a wheel upon which figures from varied walks of life rise and fall.

    амфитеатр (греч. amphi - с обеих сторон, кругом; theatron - место зрелищ)
    В театрах Древней Греции места для зрителей, расположенные полукругом на склонах холмов.

    ансамбль (франц. ensemble - вместе)
    В архитектуре означает согласованное и продуманное единство в расположении группы зданий, образующих целостную архитектурную композицию.

    Pictured, described, or thought of as having a human attributes.

    антропоморфный инициал
    anthropomorphic initial
    An initial composed wholly or partly of human figures. Anthropomorphic motifs occur in other decorative contexts as well.

    аппликационная открытка
    applique postcard
    A novelty postcard onto which material is applied to the surface to form the image. Feathers, real hair, fabric (see the black cat half way down on this linked page), dried flowers, powdered glass, and so on. These cards were very popular with everyone but the Post Office who, challenged with the task of delivering them, charged a higher postage rate for doing so.

    An ornament or style of ornamentation consisting of fine, linear foliate designs in curvilinear patterns, derived from Islamic art.

    арабские числа
    Arabic numerals
    The figures 0 - 9, introduced into Europe from India, via the Islamic world, around 1100. From the thirteenth century on, the use of Arabic numerals increased, partially supplanting ROMAN NUMERALS and other alphabetic systems of numeric representation. They did not come into general use, however, until the fifteenth century.

    арена (латин. arena - песок)
    Площадка, посыпанная песком, в амфитеатрах Древнего Рима.

    71,12 см

    астрономические / астрологические тексты
    astronomical / astrological texts
    Manuscripts on the subject of astronomy or astrology often contain images associated with the constellations (such as Orion the hunter and Aquarius the water bearer) or diagrammatic representations of the universe and its components. Some of the major astronomical texts to appear in illuminated copies include: Cicero's Aratea, written in the first century B.C., a Latin translation of a third-century B.C. Greek verse text by Aratus, in turn based on a prose treatise, the Phoenomena, written by Eudoxus of Cnidos a century earlier; Ptolemy's Almagest (c. 142 A.D.); and later medieval compositions, such as John Foxton's Liber Cosmographiae.
    Astronomy (the observation of the stars, or 'natural astrology') was not originally distinguished from astrology (divination by means of the observation of the stars, or 'judicial astrology'). In the fourth century B.C., for example, Aristotle used 'astrology' to embrace both subjects. The Mesopotamians and Egyptians were instrumental in the early development of astronomy and astrology and identified each of the heavenly bodies with specific gods. Their practices were transmitted to the Greek and Roman worlds and subsequently to Islam and the medieval West. The study of both astronomy and astrology declined in the first Christian centuries, the latter because its system of prognostication ran counter to the preordained plan of Christian salvation. In the CAROLINGIAN period, however, with its revival of CLASSICAL TEXTS, both subjects were taken up again. As a result, certain works, such as CALENDARS and horoscopes, were used in conjunction with both astronomical and astrological material.
    From the twelfth century, Arabic learning, which had preserved aspects of classical knowledge in astronomy and astrology as well as other subjects, increasingly influenced the West. Western thinkers became interested in the works of Eudoxus, Ptolemy, and Al-Bitruji (fl. c. 1190), and by the thirteenth century a controversy even arose (in which the theologian Albertus Magnus and the philosopher-scientist Roger Bacon played an important part) concerning the respective merits of the ancient and Arabic authors. The rise of new methods of astronomy during the fifteenth century and the 1543 publication of Nicolaus Copernicus' theory that the earth revolved around the sun did much to damage the academic credibility of astrology, but it continued to exert an influence within society. Moreover, there was never a clear-cut division between works in these fields and those dealing with experimental science, alchemy, and magic.

    An object that identifies a person, most often used for saints.
    барельефная открытка
    Bass relief postcard
    A postcard to touch and feel. The image on the card has heavily raised surfaces giving it a sculptured feel. Usually the images are of Royalty or Edwardian actresses and other 'familiar' celebrities of the era. Run your finger over the surface and you will feel the contours of their faces, hair, and bodies. The effect is more pronounced than on embossed cards. It was a patented process.

    белый стебель виноградной лозы
    white vine-stem
    The Italian humanists developed a characteristic white vine-stem BORDER (termed bianchi girari). The motif originated in fifteenth-century Florence and spread northward throughout Europe, accompanying humanistic or CLASSICAL TEXTS. White vine-stem borders were conscious emulations of what were thought to be ANTIQUE manuscripts but were in fact Italian manuscripts of the twelfth century. The white vine was generally left as blank parchment.

    Small brown spot blemishes on the postcard. The causes of foxing are thought to be fungal in nature or to be the result of residual metals included in the card from the pulp process.
    The phrase means 'goes with me' in Latin and refers to a portable book (often suspended from a belt), frequently consisting of leaves folded in a concertina or fold-out format. Such books could be consulted easily by physicians, for example, and often contain CALENDARS, almanacs, and medical information.


    4,45 см

    викторианские открытки
    Victorian postcards
    Victorian Postcards dating from the era of Queen Victoria who reigned from 1837 until 1901. It was during Victoria's reign that Britains penny post service was introduced (in 1840) and in 1870 the first postcard was made available, a preprinted correspondence card with a half penny universal delivery charge. The availability of this fixed cost and reliable postal service resulted in a wide and rapid public acceptance of the medium.

    A postcard image in which the colour or tone fades gradually to blend into the (invariably white) background of the card. Vignettes were a common feature of early undivided back postcards on which white space had to be left for the senders message on the picture side of the card.

    волюта (лат. voluta - завиток)
    Орнаментальное украшение в виде завитка или спирали; характерная часть капители ионической колонны.

    выдвижная открытка
    A style of novelty postcard. The postcard has an attached pouch containing a concertina strip of pull out images. Open the container to extend the strip of miniature images. The better cards present the pouch as an integral part of the design; as postmens sacks, suitcases or motorcar luggage, as seaside creatures, as WW1 knapsacks, and so on.
    гелевое или желатиновое покрытие
    Gel or gelatin coated postcards
    An American term but one that is applicable elsewhere. Postcards with a thin glossy surface layer. The surface layer can be prone to cracking.

    гемма (латин. gemma - драгоценный камень, жемчужина)
    Резной камень с выполненным на нем изображением.

    A hybrid and comic figure, often combining elements from various human and animal forms. Grotesques often bear no obvious relationship to the texts they embellish, although they can carry a commonly understood meaning derived, for example, from bestiary-related texts. They were popular in gotic art from the thirteenth century on, especially as marginalia.

    групповая открытка
    panel card
    A novelty postcard printed onto very thick card, designed to be framed or otherwise displayed by the recipient.

    Сок, вытекающий из-под коры аравийской и африканской акаций. Бесцветные или слегка жёлтоокрашенные прозрачные комки. Состоит из калиевых и кальциевых солей арабиновой кислоты. Растворяется в воде.
    В иконописи используется как связующее твореного золота и серебра для золотопробельного письма - особой манеры исполнения пробелов.
    Золотой век
    Golden Age
    The era in which postcards were at their peak of popularity. Generally considered to begin in 1902 when the introduction of the divided back and improved printing technologies allowed publishers to produce cards with images of a larger size and quality. The Golden Age continued through to the start of the First World War in 1914.

    зоо-антропоморфный инициал
    zoo-antropomorphic initial
    An initial partly or wholly composed of conflated human and animal forms. Zoo-anthropomorphic EVANGELIST SYMBOLS, in which a human body is surmounted by the head of the symbolic animal, are occasionally found in INSULAR art and were particularly popular in Brittany. Zoo-anthropomorphic motifs also occur in other decorative contexts.

    зооморфный инициал
    zoomorphic initial
    An initial partly or wholly composed of animal forms. Zoomorphic motifs occur in other decorative contexts as well.
    напрестольная пелена
    A phase of work in the production of a manuscript. A manuscript could be made over a period of time in several campaigns of work; additional material might be added in a separate, later campaign.

    подвесная лампада

    каннелюра (франц. cannelure)
    Вертикальный желобок в стволе колонны.

    midget (or miniature)
    Postcards that were half the usual 3 1/2 x 5 1/2 inch postcards. Produced in the early 1900's. Midget postcards featuring the actresses of the Edwardian era were a popular novelty of that time. There were also Giant postcards.

    украшение в виде щита или полуразвёрнутого свитка, на котором изображён герб или эмблема
    An ornament in the form of a scroll or shield.

    The word refers to a medium-size volume, one quarter the area of a full sheet of writing material. The quires of quarto volumes were usually made by folding two sheets in half, then in half again. Quarto may be abbreviated to 4o or 4to.

    керамика (греч. keramikos - глиняный, гончарный)
    Гончарное искусство, а также изделия из природной глины.

    композиция (латин. compositio - сочинение, составление, соединение, связь)
    Обусловленное идейным замыслом построение художественного произведения, расположение и взаимосвязь его частей, образующих единое целое.
    ложечка для причастия

    линейная открытка
    linen postcard
    An American term and specific to American postcards. Postcards produced on a distinctive textured paper whose surface resembled the weave of linen fabric. These postcards generally date from the 1920's through to the 1950's.

    лицевая сторона
    The front side of a folio or leaf, abbreviated as r and sometimes denoted as a.
    Also known by the French term atelier, a workshop is a studio in which a number of artists work together, generally under a MASTER, either on a regular or ad hoc basis. The term also refers to a group of artists who work together and is sometimes used in this sense to denote the secular equivalent of the monastic SCRIPTORIUM during the GOTHIC and RENAISSANCE periods (and during ANTIQUITY as well). Artists working on the same project need not necessarily have belonged to a workshop, since they frequently lived in the same urban neighbourhood and might join together for a single commission. In the context of attributing a work of art to a particular artist, the term 'workshop product' is used when the art is in the style of a master, but is thought to have been executed by an assistant emulating that style. See also SCHOOL OF ILLUMINATION, SECULAR PRODUCTION, and STATIONER.

    Распространенный в античном искусстве орнамент в виде непрерывной линии, изломанной под прямым углом.

    механическая обработка
    Tooling is the decoration of a surface with the aid of metal hand tools and stamps (a technique employing the latter being termed stamped). On BINDINGS, the tools were used to impress the decoration into the leather covering, which was often dampened. The impression or indentation produced is called blind if it remains uncoloured. Gold tooling became popular in the fifteenth century. In this process, gold leaf was laid onto a coating of glair and impressed into the leather with a heated tool, leaving an image in gold after the excess was rubbed away. Gilded surfaces (see GILDING) in ILLUMINATION were also sometimes tooled.

    механическая открытка
    Mechanical postcard
    A novelty postcard with some moving parts. There are numerous types. Cards with levers or tabs to change part of the displayed image. Cards with thumbwheels which when rotated update the display of a calendar or clock. Gramophone record postcards. Postcards with squeakers.

    морская комическая открытка
    seaside comic postcards
    Seaside Comic Postcards designed to be sent home by the British seaside holidaymaker. Always with a comic theme, often risque and sometimes vulgar. English seaside comic postcards first appeared in the early 1900's illustrated by artists such as Tom Browne. Later the cards became saucier and, with an emphasis on sexually suggestive double meaning and innuendo, the artist Donald McGill achieved recognition as the master of this style. In the 1930's and 40's the saucy postcard was at its peak with many millions being sent each year. The tide turned in the 1950's when the government decided that Britains moral fibre was threatened. McGill was prosecuted under the 1857 Obscene Publications Act. The industry suffered as a result wth retailers reluctant to stock the cards and, while the more open minded society of the 60's saw a brief revival, the saucy seaside postcard went into decline. Happily, today the cards are seen as being great fun and very much 'of their time' and are avidly collected.
    наградная карточка
    reward card
    Reward Cards are not, strictly speaking, postcards though they were postcard sized and similar in design. The cards were used as rewards for good behaviour or attendance at school or church. The cards typically have an image to one side and have either plain backs or some preprinted text concerning the depicted topic or awarding institution.

    наос (греч. naos)
    Центральная часть древнегреческого храма, святилище, где стояло изображение божества.

    народный язык
    A vernacular language is a regional language, as distinct from an international literary language, such as Latin and Greek. Throughout the Middle Ages certain texts, notably those of a liturgical character, were generally in Latin (although biblical texts were gradually translated into the vernacular). The development of Western vernacular literacy began at least as early as the sixth century in Ireland and CELTIC Britain and spread to England in the following century. Spain and Frankia followed suit later. The growth of secular literacy beginning in the twelfth century stimulated an increased use of the vernacular in texts. See also BIBLE.

    неразделённая обратная сторона
    undivided back
    Undivided back postcards carried the recpients address and postage stamp on one side and the message was written on the 'picture' side. In 1902 Great Britain introduced the divided back, on one side of the card would be the the picture, the other would have both the recipients address and senders message with a dividing line between the two. The transition from undivided to divided back took several years as postal authorities around the world adopted common standards.

    нижний обрез
    The foot or lower end of a manuscript.

    нижняя часть
    A panel of ornament, sometimes containing a RUBRIC or COLOPHON, which stands at the end of a text.

    Postcards that vary from the norm. Postcards made from an unusual material such as Celluloid, leather or aluminium. Postcards with mechanical features. Postcards with hair, feathers, flowers, glass eyes or other materials attached. Postcards with pullout strips of images.

    новое искусство
    Art Nouveau postcard
    An art and decorative design style fashionable between 1890 and 1910. Characterised by the organic curves of nature and often depicting flowers, leaves or tendrils and the flowing hair of a young woman. Art Nouveau artist postcards are among the most sought after of cards; names such as Mucha, Kirchner, A K Macdonald, Henri Meunier, Basch, Lessiuex and others.

    nomina sacra
    Термин введен в научное обращение профессором Людвигом Траубе для слов, которые в христианских письменных памятниках встречаются всегда или почти всегда сокращенными: DS - Deus (Бог), SPS - Spiritus (Дух), IHS - Iesus (Иисус), XPS (Xpistus)- Христос.
    оборотная сторона
    The back of a folio or leaf, abbreviated as v and sometimes denoted b.

    принадлежность архиерейского облачения, длинная широкая полоса ткани, покрывающая плечи и спускающаяся своими концами спереди и сзади

    ордер (лат. ordo - ряд, разряд)
    Один из видов архитектурной композиции.

    Орхестра (греч. orchestra)
    В древнегреческом театре круглая площадка, на которой выступал хор античной трагедии и комедии.
    принадлежность архиерейского облачения, ромбовидный плат, носимый у правого бедра

    акафист Богородицы

    переходный стиль
    transitional style
    The term refers to the style practiced in European art from about 1180 to 1220, that is, in the period of transition between the ROMANESQUE and the GOTHIC. The most notable characteristic of this art is its stylistic experimentation, partly stimulated by a heightened interest in BYZANTINE art, as in the work of some of the illuminators of the Winchester BIBLE. The Transitional Style also shows a shift from some of the more decorative, MANNERED effects of Romanesque art toward a greater degree of NATURALISTIC rendering.

    печатное фото
    printed photo
    A postcard of photographic origin but produced in volume via a printing process and lacking the definition and finish of real photo postcards.

    подписано художником
    Artist signed
    A postcard carrying a print of the signature of the artist or a postcard on which the publisher clearly identifies the artist's name.


    портрет автора
    author portrait
    A miniature or historiated initial depicting the author of a text.
    Author portraits were known in antiquity and appear in manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages in a variety of texts.

    портик (лат. porticus)
    Выступающая перед фасадом здания открытая галерея, которую образуют колонны, несущие перекрытие.

    нарукавники, стягивающие у кисти рукава подризника

    Привет из
    Gruss Aus
    In the 1890s the words Gruss Aus (literally 'Greetings From') first appeared as part of the design on town view postcards published in German speaking European countries. The fashion spread swiftly with each country using the equivalent greeting in their own language. These cards were the forerunner of the seaside holiday souvenir postcards.

    Preliminary drawing that lies under the final painted or inked image. Prior to the eleventh century, underdrawing was often executed with a HARD POINT, but thereafter a METAL POINT, especially a LEAD POINT, or diluted INK was generally used. STYLI, dividers, and compasses were sometimes employed in the laying out of a design throughout the Middle Ages. See also BACKDRAWING
    разделённая обратная сторона
    divided back
    The earliest postcards carried the recipients address and postage stamp on one side, the message was written on the 'picture' side. Such cards are known as undivided back postcards. In 1902 Great Britain introduced the divided back, a picture on one side and a divided space on the other side for both the recipients address and senders message. The transition from undivided to divided back took many years as postal authorities around the world adopted similar standards.

    раскрашенный рисунок
    tinted drawing
    A style and technique of ILLUMINATION in which the outlines of the subject are drawn in black or coloured INK and tints of coloured wash are applied to all or some of the surfaces to suggest modelling. Tinted drawing was particularly popular in ANGLO-SAXON England and enjoyed a revival in thirteenth-century England in the work of Matthew Paris and the Court School of Henry III. The technique is sometimes used in conjunction with FULLY PAINTED elements.

    реальное фото
    real photo
    A photographic print developed and printed directly onto a piece of card with a postcard back. The finest were produced by local photographers in very small quantities, sometimes singly, sometimes with a small number of copies. Larger companies also produced real photo postcards in some volume. The difference between real photo postcards and printed photo postcards is swiftly apparent under magnification.

    рельефная открытка
    embossed postcard
    A postcard with a raised surface to its image. Think in terms of physical 3d image that has contours that can be felt as you run your fingers over them Often an embossed card will also have other novelty effects applied.

    сажень (ж. род)
    2,13 м

    в шитье: золотные и серебряные нити, перевитые с шелковыми

    A series of postcards which when assembled together form a single picture. Horizontal series display images such as march hares or horses running. Rectangular series display artists depictions of notable figures or events, for example Joan of Arc, Jesus Christ, and so on. Composite sets were often purchased to be sent one at a time to the recipient who would gradually assemble the full picture.

    Abbreviations were often used to save space and effort when writing.
    They generally fall into three categories: suspensions, in which the end of a word is abbreviated, signalled by the use of a horizontal bar or another graphic symbol; contractions, in which another part of a word is abbreviated with the use of a graphic symbol; abbreviation symbols, used for whole words and often derived from the tachygraphic (shorthand) systems of ANTIQUITY (that of Tiro, Cicero's secretary, being most influential).
    All three types of abbreviation could be used in the same manuscript, as variable and invariable forms and as phonetic equivalents.
    During Antiquity a few common elements were often abbreviated (notably the Latin word endings -bus and -que and the final m and n).
    These short forms are known as notae communes, while abbreviations for specialized jargon in legal texts are known as notae iuris.
    Abbreviations for nomina sacra ('sacred names'), such as the Greek xps form of Christus (see CHI-RHO), occur in EARLY CHRISTIAN works. INSULAR scribes were especially fond of abbreviations, including tironian notae, and Irish scribes used them extensively in order to produce pocket-size GOSPEL BOOKS for study purposes (pocket Gospels).
    With the growth of universities, from around 1200, the use of abbreviations proliferated.
    Medieval readers would have been familiar with such devices, although there were probably always some that were particularly obscure, and there is evidence that SCRIBES themselves sometimes puzzled over certain abbreviations.

    ежедневный помин в течение 40 дней
    Tablets of wood, or sometimes ivory, were used as writing surfaces in two ways: either INK was applied on them; or they were hollowed out and filled with wax so that one could write with a STYLUS. Along with the ROLL, the tablet was the principal writing vehicle during ANTIQUITY, being used for informal purposes, teaching, letters, drafting, and for records (such as letters of citizenship). The gradual substitution of sheets of PARCHMENT for wood or ivory may well have stimulated the development of the CODEX form. Tablets continued to be used into the twentieth century for informal financial accounts (by French fishermen, for example). During the Middle Ages, they fulfilled a variety of functions: drafting texts; trying out artistic designs; recording liturgical commemorations; note taking during study; accounting and legal contexts; as proto-Filofaxes; and as love tokens filled with amorous poetry. Tablets ranged in format from robust teaching tablets to portable GIRDLE BOOKS. Although different colours of wax were used, black and green predominated. A number of tablets were sometimes bound together with leather thongs or within a leather case. Tablets were also made with handles (the tabula ansata), whose shape could serve as a decorative motif.

    The celebration of christological feasts (including Christmas, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost) and the section of a liturgical book containing the texts for those feasts. The temporale also includes the saints' feast days celebrated between December 24 and January 13 because of their close association with the Christmas season. For the MASS, the temporale, together with the SANCTORALE, the Common of Saints, and the invariable canon and ordinary of the mass, provides the order of services for the liturgical year.

    Typology is an interpretive system in Christian thought wherein people, events, and passages of the Old Testament are seen as prefigurations of New Testament themes. The system is designed to prove that the New Testament is a fulfilment of the Old. The sacrifice of Isaac, for example, foretells the Crucifixion; David is a type of Christ; and the stories of Jonah and the whale and Daniel in the lions' den prefigure Christ's Passion and Resurrection. Although encountered during the early Middle Ages, typological juxtapositions become more frequent in art from the eleventh century on.

    титульная часть
    title piece
    A decorative panel or page carrying the title of a work, or a label on a BINDING. The positioning and style of a title piece can reveal a great deal about PROVENANCE and methods of library storage.

    топографическая открытка
    topographic postcard
    A postcard displaying a scene of the world as our predecessors knew it. Views of markets, of street scenes, people at work or at worship and of buildings. Your house, your road or town as it was some time ago. Topo postcards are an excellent social history resource. Genealogists collect such cards to document locations associated with their family history. Many collect the history of the town they live in or have family links to. Some collect features of interest such as Piers, Cinemas, Theatres, Harbours, pubs and so on. The list is as endless as your subject of interest.

    триглиф (греч. triglyphos - с тремя нарезками)
    Прямоугольный с тремя вертикальными желобками камень, который в чередовании с метонами образуют фриз дорического ордера.

    trompe l'oeil
    A French expression meaning 'deceives the eye', trompe l'oeil describes painting in which things are made to appear to be resting on or projecting from the surface of the picture.
    установленный размер
    court card
    Between 1894 and 1899 British postcards were 'court sized'. British postal authorities limited by law the size of privately published postcards to be of similar size to those that they published (and smaller than the cards published by other European nations). Court sized cards were four and half inches by three and half.
    фиксация освещения
    hold to light
    A novelty postcard with die cut or transparent areas designed to allow the transmission of light through parts of the image to create a 'lit up' effect when the card is held to a light source. Typical subjects include night scenes with the windows of buildings that light up, though there are also many more elaborate styles.

    форум (лат. forum)
    the Forum
    Площадь в Древнем Риме, где происходили народные собрания, устраивались ярмарки и совершался суд.
    chromo litho
    Chromolithography is a printing method. It was the first method capable of producing multi-color prints and prevailed on postcards published in the late 18 and early 1900's. Based on lithography it used print blocks (originally stone slabs) onto which an image was drawn using an oil based medium. There was one block (or stone) for each colour. A chemical process etched away the oil free parts of the block leaving the image part for the given colour proud of the surface. The card would be printed in multiple impressions, each block adding another colour layer. There are several examples on this site, here are a couple. Take care not to confuse this term with the American use of the word Chrome (ending with an e) which refers to relatively modern (1950's onwards) glossy Kodachrome postcards.
    изображение подвешенных по панели пелены или полотенец, украшенных орнаментом
    эдуардовская открытка
    Edwardian postcard
    Postcards dating from the era of King Edward VII who reigned from 1902 until his death in 1910. Often referred to as the golden age of postcards. There were few telephones, no radio and so on. Postcards were the best, the quickest, the cheapest method of communicating with family and friends. It was in this era that postcard collecting was firmly established. Postcards covered every subject of interest. Publishers competed fiercly and the cards of this era thoroughly document their time.

    эскиз (греч. esquisse)
    Первоначальный, предварительный набросок художественного произведения.

    эстетика (греч. aisthesis - ощущение, чувство)
    Учение о прекрасном, об искусстве и художественном творчестве.
посвящённый предмет: