Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland also head of the Commonwealth.
Her Majesty by the Grace of God, Elizabeth the Second, has been one of the longest-reigning monarchs in British history, presiding over nearly six decades of social and political change.
As monarch, she has enjoyed consistently high personal popularity for her unpretentious dignity and grandmotherly style.
As an institution, however, the monarchy has been widely questioned under her reign, both in Britain and especially abroad, in the dozen or so Commonwealth nations in which she also serves as queen.
The personal scandals of the royal family and a general sense of democratic distaste for hereditary rule in the 21st Century have led many to wonder if Elizabeth will prove to be Britain’s last monarch — or at least the last popular one.